Kidney failure of a short duration is known as acute kidney failure, and can be due to prerenal causes, postrenal causes and renal causes. Prerenal causes account for nearly 60-70% of this condition, and result from insufficient blood supply to the kidneys due to dehydration, a drastic drop in blood pressure, and a heart attack or heart failure. Post renal causes account for only 5-10 % of this condition, and result from obstruction to the flow of urine due to kidney stones, tumors, enlarged prostate or other causes. Renal causes account for 25-40% of this condition, and result from damage to the renal blood vessels or actual kidney tissue due to infection, inflammation or injury.
Acute kidney failure needs to be treated in a hospital, with a focus on supplementing or replacing the filtration function of the kidneys, and treating the specific cause of the condition. Limitation of oral fluids, correction of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and steps to improve blood circulation and blood pressure are standard hospital procedures.
Ayurvedic medicines can be used to treat prerenal causes like a low blood pressure, because of which the kidneys do not get sufficient blood circulation. Medicines like Nardiya-Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Maha-Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Siddha-Makardhwaj-Ras and Hem-Garbha-Ras can be used for this purpose. Other prerenal causes like a heart attack can be treated using medicines like Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani-Ras, Shrung-Bhasma, Arjunarishta, Dashmoolarishta and Punarnavasav. Postrenal causes like an enlarged prostate or a tumor are treated using medicines like Chandraprabha-Vati, Gokshuradi-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Trivang-Bhasma, Suvarna-Raj-Vangeshwar-Ras, Kanchnaar-Guggulu, Triphala-Guggulu, Suvarna-Bhasma and Heerak-Bhasma.
Ayurvedic medicines are especially useful in treating renal causes resulting in acute organ failure, which include diseases like glomerulonephritis, acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. Medicines like Chandraprabha-Vati, Gokshuradi-Guggulu, Maha-Manjishthadi-Qadha, Saarivasav, Chandrakala-Ras, Sutshekhar-Ras, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Shankh-Vati, Panchamrut-Parpati, Yava-Kshar and Surya-Kshar are very effective in treating these conditions. In addition, medicines which act on the “Rakta” and “Meda” dhatus (tissues) are also quite helpful in these conditions. These medicines include Patol (Trichosanthe dioica), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Patha (Cissampelos pareira), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Triphala (Three fruits) and Kutaj (Holarrhina antidysentrica).These medicines increase the blood flow to the kidneys and thus increase the filtration rate. In addition, these medicines help to heal injured kidney tissue and thus preserve kidney function. The combined action of these medicines helps in removing impurities from the blood at a faster rate and this helps considerably in reducing or removing associated symptoms like confusion, lethargy, fatigue and nausea and vomiting.
Since acute kidney failure is a serious condition, all such patients need to be under the regular care and supervision of a nephrologist, both during hospitalization and also in the post hospitalization stage. Ayurvedic medicines can be added in the medical management so as to improve the chances of recovery and reduce long-term complications.